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Fig. 1a, b Hopeless case – 18-year old girl, high-level athletic suffering an osteochon-
 ASTM (Commitee) 1988. F4 The American Society for testing materials, standard specification
dritis dissecans of the talus dome. The girl was treated with two cartilage-
for composites of ceramic hydroxyapatite for surgical implants, ASTM Standards, ASTM
bone grafts gathered from the patellar groove and press- t inserted by SDI.
designation F 1185-1188.
A restitutio ad integrum was achieved for the last 16 years after resurfacing.
Axhausen, G. 1908. Histologische Untersuchungen über Knochentransplantation am
Fig. 2a, b Posttraumatic, totally destroyed medial condyle in a 57-year old lady,
Menschen. Langenbecks Arch Chir, 91, 388-428.
and c reconstructed with a triple resurfacing gathered from the trochlea patellae.
Axhausen, G. 1911. Über die durchbohrenden Gefässkanäle des Knochengewebes
The joint is in full function 14 years after resurfacing.
(Volkmann'sche Kanäle). Arch klin Chir, 94, 296-331.
Bauer, H. J., Bauer, M., und Dingeldein, E. 1994. Aufbau einer Hydroxylapatitkaramik
Fig. 3 Press- t inserted graft in a pig bone. The extractor of the transplant causes
biologischer Herkunft. Osteosynthese International 2, 106-110
the visible small defects; all cancellous bone trabeculae are in close contact
Buck, B. E. and Malinin, T. I. 1994. Human bone and tissue allografts. Preparation and safety.
to each other.
Clin Orthop Relat Res, 303, 8-17.
FBiugn. d4esärztekamTwmienrs, oBf. dui.amw.onBd. dc.ut1t9er9s0:. tRheicohutltienriedniazmumeteFr üohfrethneesinmearllKernocnheenisbaenxkacDtlytsch
Burchardt, H. 1th9a8n3.thTeheinbnieorlodgiaymoef tbeor noef gthraefftorlelpoawiri.nCg ltionoOl. rthop Relat Res,174, 28-42.
Burri, C., Henkemeyer, H. 1971. Autologe Spongiosa bei Osteomyelitis mit Knochen-,
Fig. 5 μ-CT scan of a triple resurfacing in a femoral condyle of a pig: the subchon-
Weichteil- und Hautdefekt. Langenbecks Arch Klin Chir, 330, 54-78.
dral bone is exactly aligned.
Cameron, H. U., MacNab, I., and Pilliar , R. M. 1977. Evaluation of a biodegradable ceramic. J Biomed Mater Res 11, 179
Fig. 6 Open end of an extractor: the sharp tool is cutting the soft tissue of the hya-
Castellani, C., Zanoni, G., Tangl, S., van Griensven, M. and Redl, H. 2009. Biphasic calcium
line cartilage before the diamond-coated tool is grinding the subchondral
phosphate ceramics in small bone defects: potential influence of carrier substances and
bone. The inner wall reveals the pro le for taking out the graft cylinder.
bone marrow on bone regeneration. Clin Oral Implants Res, 20, 1367-74.
Fig. 7 Contact healing of an autologous cartilage bone graft in dogs' knee joint 4
Claes, L. E., Heigele, C. A., Neidlinger-Wilke, C., Kaspar, D., Seidl, W., Margevicius, K. J.
weeks after surgery. Alkaline fuchsine staining of a cross section.
and Augat, P. 1998. Effects of mechanical factors on the fracture healing process. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 355 (Supplement), 132-147.
Fig. 8 Wood dowelling in a farmers house is considered one of the oldest tech-
Cordell, J. M., Vogl, M. L. and Wagoner Johnson, A. J. 2009. The influence of micropore
niques of carpenters.
size on the mechanical properties of bulk hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite scaffolds.
Fig. 9 Inner rinsing technique for gathering osteo-cartilage grafts which reveal vi-
J Mechan Behavior Biomed Mat 2, 560-570
tal bone with living cells without any heat necrosis.
Czitrom, A. A., Keating, S. and Gross, A. E. 1990. The viability of articular cartilage in fresh osteochondral allografts after clinical transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 72, 574-
Fig. 10 81. Cancellous bone of a bovine rib revealing vital bone marrow without arti- facts by the wet grinding process. Fuchsine staining.
de Boer, H. H. 1988. The history of bone grafts. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 226, 292-8.
Fig. 11a, b Medial condyle of the femur of a 74-year old woman: bone-to-bone articula-
De Groot, K. 1980. Bioceramics consisting of calcium phosphate salts. Biomaterials, 1, 47- 50. tion has yield loss of cartilage and even bone tissue up to a depth of 3 mm:
De Groot, K. 1tr9i8p5le. DreiseukrflaincisncghegaAthnewredndfrboamrkethitevpoanteCllalrcigurmoopvheoshpahdalta-Kstefroarmtihke. f. oZllaohwnä- rzt Mitt,75in,g191308-y1e9a4rs0.inspiteofthefactthatthevarusdeformationofthekneewas
De Groot, K., de Visser, A. C., Driessen, A. A. and Wolke, J. G. 1980. Improved cements
not corrected.
containing phosphate polymers. J Dent Res, 59, 1493-6.
Fig. 12 Large osteo-cartilage fragment of the femoral head in a 16-year old girl: The
De Groot, K., Klein, C. P. A. T. and Driessen, A. A. 1987. Herstellung und Werkstoff-
osteo-cartilage dowels were gathered from the lateral part of the head, ac-
eigenschaften der Calciumphosphatbiokeramiken Apatit und Whitlockit. Berlin,
complished by a free graft taken from the lower part of the head. The joint
regained full function for the following 15 years.
Detsch, R., Mayr, H. and Ziegler, G. 2008. Formation of osteoclast-like cells on HA and TCP ceramics. Acta Biomater, 4, 139-48.
Fig. 13a Hydroxyapatite (HA) cylinder sandwiched by two autologous grafts in a
Draenert, F. G., Mathys, R., Jr., Ehrenfeld, M., Draenert, Y. and Draenert, K. 2007.
shepherd dog, four weeks after press- t insertion: there is no difference with
Histological examination of drill sites in bovine rib bone after grinding in vitro with
respect to osseointegration;
eight different devices. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 45, 548-552.
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